Scanning Probe Microscope designed for easy integration into the Electron Microscopes. The combination of complementary SPM and SEM techniques enables to use the advantages of both commonly used microscopy techniques.


Imaging modes

The LiteScope™ provides and supports a wide spectrum of SPM measurement methods and probes.

The cornerstone and most valuable technical feature of its design is the universal probe holder enabling very easy “Plug & Play” installation of different probes.

NenoVision LiteScope SEM2

Methods and relevant probes supported by LiteScope™

  Akiyama probes Tuning fork based probes PRS/A* Pt/Ir wire
STM (Scanning Tunneling Microscopy)
AFM – Contact Mode
AFM – Tapping Mode
AFM – Conductive Mode
MFM (Magnetic Force Microscopy)
KPFM (Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy)
EFM (Electrostatic Force Microscopy)
FMM (Force Modulation Mode)
Local voltage measurement
Local current measurement

* Piezo-Resistive Sensing / Active (PRSA) probes

Atomic-Force Microscopy

Contact Mode
In contact mode, the tip is "dragged" across the surface of the sample and the contours of the surface are measured either using the deflection of the cantilever directly or, more commonly, using the feedback signal required to keep the cantilever at a constant deflection.

Tapping Mode
In tapping mode, the probe is driven to oscillate vertically at or near its resonance frequency. This oscillation is achieved by the piezoelectric properties of the probe (tuning fork), integrated heater element (PRSA) or a small piezo element in the cantilever holder (PRS). The amplitude of this oscillation usually varies from several nm to 200 nm.

Conductive Mode
(C-AFM) is a variation of atomic force microscopy (AFM) which, simultaneously to topography measures the electrical current to construct the map of conductivity of the studied sample. The current is flowing through the metal-coated tip of the microscope and the conducting sample.

Electrostatic Force Microscopy

EFM is a type of dynamic non-contact atomic force microscopy where the electrostatic force is probed. This force arises due to the attraction or repulsion of separated charges. It is a long-range force and can be detected 100 nm or more from the sample.

Local voltage / current measurement

LiteScopeTM could be used also as a standalone nanomanipulator. Metallic tip is sticked in the sample at desired position and the local voltage / current is measured. This mode is not a microscopy technique but could be used to measure e.g. electron beam induced currents etc.

Force Modulation Microscopy

FMM is an extension of AFM imaging that operates in Contact mode and is used to detect variations in the mechanical properties of the sample surface such as elasticity or adhesion.

In FMM mode, the AFM tip scans in contact with the sample surface and the Z-feedback loop maintains a constant cantilever deflection as in constant-force mode AFM.

Kelvin Probe Force Microscope

KPFM is a scanning probe method where the local contact potential difference of a probe tip and a surface can be measured using the same principle as a macroscopic Kelvin probe. The cantilever in the AFM is a reference electrode that forms a capacitor with the surface, over which it is scanned laterally at a constant separation. The cantilever is not externally driven at its mechanical resonance frequency ω0 as in normal AFM although an alternating voltage is applied between the tip and the surface at this frequency.

Magnetic Force Microscopy

The MFM is a mode of atomic force microscope, where a sharp magnetized tip scans a magnetic sample; the tip-sample magnetic interactions are detected and used to reconstruct the magnetic structure of the sample surface.

Many kinds of magnetic interactions are measured by MFM, including magnetic dipole–dipole interaction, magnetic domain walls, magnetic vortices etc. MFM scanning often uses non-contact AFM (NC-AFM) mode.

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

The STM is a technique for imaging conductive surfaces at the atomic level. The STM can be used not only in ultra-high vacuum but also in air, water, and various other liquid or gas ambients, and at temperatures ranging from near zero kelvin to a few hundred degrees Celsius.