LiteScope measurement modes

LiteScope AFM-in-SEM offers a wide range of measurement modes to examine different sample properties. Below you can find a list of AFM techniques we offer to complement your SEM measurements, based on our game-changing CPEM (Correlative Probe & Electron Microscopy) technology. CPEM represents a unique value of AFM-in-SEM correlative measurements, assuring in-situ acquisition & simultaneous seamless correlation of AFM and SEM channels.

Material mechanical properties


AFM surface topography allows high-resolution measurements of a wide range of samples. Different types of self-sensing cantilevers can be used. Measurements can be made in contact or tapping mode.

Energy Dissipation

Energy dissipation provides imaging of the local elastic properties of the material. An alternative to FMM, that provides similar information while requiring almost no change from the basic topography measurement setup.

Force Modulation Microscopy (FMM)

FMM allows imaging of the local elastic properties of the sample. An oscillating downforce is applied on the tip during a contact mode measurement. Amplitude and phase of the demodulated response signal contain information about local elasticity.


A widely used method for material hardness characterization. LiteScope’s dedicated nanoindentation module from Alemnis enables local hardness and elasticity measurement with supreme control over experiment conditions inside SEM.

Force-distance curves

F/z spectroscopy is a useful tool for precise local sample characterization. Spectroscopy is used for many purposes like a sample stiffness analysis, detailed surface-tip force progress or local elasticity/plasticity determination.


Mechanical and electrostatic manipulation allows the in-situ movement of the particles with nanometre precision. It can be used instead of or with SEM nano manipulators for complex in-situ operation.

Material magnetic properties

Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM)

MFM maps the magnetic force gradient above the sample surface. Similarly to KPFM, the topography and magnetic signals are measured in two separate passes over each line.

Material electro-mechanical properties

Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM)

PFM allows imaging and manipulation of piezoelectric material domains. This method measures simultaneously topography and mechanical response of the material to the applied alternating voltage. The amplitude and phase of the demodulated signal contain information about the local piezoresponse.

Material electrical properties

Conductive AFM (C-AFM)

Conductive AFM provides a high-resolution local conductivity map of the sample. A bias voltage is applied between the tip, and the sample and the tip-sample current flow is measured during contact AFM topography measurement.

Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM)

KPFM is a two-pass technique, estimating the local distribution of surface potentials. In the first pass, the topography in contact mode is measured. The probe is then lifted and repeats its trajectory in the second pass. The electrical interaction between the tip and the sample is then recorded without the influence of topography.

Spectroscopy modes

LiteScope™ provides a wide range of complex spectroscopic techniques. Spectroscopy modes enable to measure the dependence of selected quantity on time, voltage bias, tip-sample distance, electron beam current, etc. The whole process can be monitored by SEM for the exact tip location on the sample.

I-V curves give detailed information about the electrical properties of the sample. The AFM-in-SEM configuration provides precise tip navigation and other possibilities for experiment design.

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)

STM allows the measurement of conductive or semi-conductive samples with sub-nanometer resolution. The voltage bias is applied and tip-sample tunnelling current is measured. STM provides topographic information about the sample. Measurements are performed in constant current or constant height mode.