LiteScope™ brings an innovative solution for in-situ AFM-SEM measurement providing a huge range of possible application techniques.
Due to the complex control system of the LiteScope, it is possible to measure almost any SPM technique when proper electrical connections are set up.
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Tapping Atomic Force Microscopy
Tapping AFM allows high-resolution measurements with minimal risk of sample damage and high tip durability. Measurements can be performed in amplitude modulation or frequency modulation mode.
Contact Atomic Force Microscopy
Contact AFM provides simple topography measurements of a wide range of samples. Different types of self-sensing cantilevers can be used. Measurements can be performed in constant force or constant height mode.
Conductive AFM (C-AFM)
Conductive AFM provides a high-resolution local conductivity map of the sample. The voltage bias is applied between the tip and the sample and the tip-sample current flow is measured during contact AFM topography measurement.
Conductive CPEM (C-CPEM)
Unique conductive CPEM allows conductivity measurements even in insulated areas of the sample. The electron beam at the constant distance from the tip replaces the need for an applied bias in the measured area, but the tip-sample bias can still be simultaneously applied. During scanning, the tip-sample current flow is measured in contact AFM mode.
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)
STM allows measurement of conductive or semi-conductive samples with sub-nanometer resolution. The voltage bias is applied and tip-sample tunneling current is measured. STM provides topographic information about the sample. Measurements are performed in constant current or constant height mode.
LiteScope™ provides a wide range of complex spectroscopic techniques. Spectroscopy modes enable to measure the dependence of selected quantity on time, voltage bias, tip-sample distance, electron beam current, etc. The whole process can be monitored by SEM for the exact tip location on the sample.
Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM)
PFM allows imaging and manipulation of piezoelectric material domains. This method measures simultaneously topography and mechanical response of the material to the applied alternating voltage. Amplitude and phase of the demodulated signal contain information about the local piezoresponse.
Force Modulation Microscopy (FMM)
FMM allows imaging of the local elastic properties of the sample. This method simultaneously measures topography and mechanical response of the material to the mechanically excited cantilever’s oscillations. Amplitude and phase of the demodulated signal contain information about local elasticity.
Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM)
KPFM estimates the local distribution of surface potentials. First, the topography in tapping AFM mode is measured. Second, the probe is lifted and the probe oscillation (AM-KPFM) or resonant frequency change (FM-KPFM) is minimized by applied DC voltage in a feedback loop.
Energy dissipation provides imaging of the local elastic properties of the material. Thanks to the utilization of the tapping mode AFM, the sample damage risk is minimized compared to FMM. Energy dissipation information is read from the drive signal amplitude.
Widely used method for material hardness characterization. The sample hardness is determined from the indentation profile depth and the used force.
F/z spectroscopy is a useful tool for precise local sample characterization. Spectroscopy is used for many purposes like a sample stiffness analysis, detailed surface-tip force progress or local elasticity/plasticity determination.
Mechanical and electrostatic manipulation allows in-situ movement of the particles with nanometer precision. It can be used instead of or with SEM nanomanipulators for complex in-situ operation.